بازنگری در رابطه میان هنر و عرفان اسلامی بر مبنای شواهد تاریخی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

ندارد

چکیده

بسیاری از دانشوران معتقدند که هنر اسلامی با آموزه های عرفان نظری پیوند دارد؛ اما این اعتقاد خود را
به شواهد تاریخی مستند نمی کنند. منکران این پیوند نیز انکار خود را بر همین ضعف استناد متکی
می کنند. در این نوشتار می کوشیم نشان دهیم که شأن هنر اسلامی شأنی عملی و اجتماعی است و
هنرمندان مسلمان نوعا در زمره عوام بوده اند نه اعیان و فرهیختگان. از سوی دیگر، عرفانی که در جامعه
اسلامی نقش داشته است، عرفان عملی و از طریق سازوکارهای اجتماعی بوده است، سازوکارهایی از
قبیل نظام خانقاه و حلقه های اهل فتوت. بدین طریق، آموزه های اصلی عرفان اسلامی از دو راه در
هنرمندان و کار ایشان نفوذ می کرد: یکی سلوک فردی و حلول دادن ذکر مدام در احوال و اعمال،
دیگری سازوکارهایی اجتماعی چون حلقه های فتیان و نظام اصناف. بر این اساس، به نظر می رسد در
تحقیق درباره پیوند میان هنر اسلامی و عرفان باید تجدید نظر کرد و آن را از منظری دیگر نگریست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Reexamination on Relation between the Islamic Arts and Mysticism on the Historical Evidences

چکیده [English]

Many scholars have suggested that, in the Islamic culture, there was a
firm and deep relation between the arts and the Islamic mysticism. As
the Sufi poets tried to present their mystic intuitions in poems, the
Islamic artisans and craftsmen tried to realise their mystic findings in
there are works artefacts, buildings, calligraphy, paintings, music, etc.
Such an assertion is based on two premises:(1) The non-modern
Islamic milieu was full of spirituality in spite of many reports about
villainous acts in it;(2) The art works which we have inherited from
the non-modern Islamic culture are of spirituality enough to lead us to
somehow contending the spiritual character of their creators, or, at
least, the spiritual milieu and the context in which they were created.
But in fact the efforts for showing reliability of the premises are not
enough. We know that a good number of the Islamic artists were Sufi
but all of them were not so. Hever the less we can also find many
historical instances showing that the milieu was full of mysticism as
well as the prominent effective artists were Sufi or, at least, had Sufi
trends. Moreover, in the Islamic society, the men who had public
acceptability, i.e. the moral leaders, were Sufi or had somehow
relation with Sufism and mystic cycles. In this article, the present
author introduces many instances from the Persian literature and
historic texts to show the relation between Sufis and art, as well as the
relation between the Iranian Muslim artists and mysticism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Islamic art
  • Islamic Mysticism and Sufism
  • dhikr
  • mystic cycles