عنوان مقاله [English]
The process of designing and producing the lighting devices continues, almost uniform, from Ancient Persia to the Islamic era and the artists tried to take advantage of the earlier generations experience, in terms of creating more improvement equipment in design and decoration. Qajar era was the last period of using the traditional lighting equipment before the development of modern technologies and also a turning point in the evolution and development of these devices as a result of encountering Iranian traditional society to the industrial aspect of the West. Eventually, with the arrival of gas and electricity in the late thirteenth century AH, most of these items were either supplanted or were transformed into decorative tool. Based on the primary sources, the present paper studies the types of lighting equipment since ancient time and their survival and development during the Qajar period as well as the customs and crafts associated with them, by exploring the Astan-i-Quds and Astan-i-Qum treasuries
ʿAḍud al- Mulk, ʿAlī Riḍā, Safar Nāma- yi ʿAḍud al- Mulk bih ʿAtabāt, Revised by Hasan Morsalvand, Tehran, Mawʾassisa- yi Pazhūhish wa Muṭāliʿāt-i Farhangī, 1370/ 1991.
Bakhtiar, Amir Hooshang, "Manṣab-i čirāgh- čī- Bāshī Dar ʿAtabāt-i ʿĀliyyāt", Taʾrīkh-i Islām, No. 15, Fall 1382/ 2003.
Brugsch, Heinrich , Safarī bih Darbār-i Sulṭān-i Ṣāḥibiḳarān, trans. HoseinKordbacheh, Tehran, Ettelaat Publication, 1368/ 1989.
Fehervari, Geza, Ceramics of Islamic World in the Tareq Rajab Museum, New York, I.B. Tauris & co Ltd, 2000/ 1379.
Floor, Willem, Ṣanāyiʿ- i Kuhan dar Dawra- yi Ḳādjār, Traditional Crafts in Qajar Iran (1800-1925), trans. Ali- Reza Baharlou, Tehran, Piykara, 1393/ 2014.
Guzārish- hā- yi Naẓmiyya az Maḥallāt-i Ṭihrān (Tehran), Rāpūrt-i WaḳāyiʿMukhtalifa Maḥallat- i Dār al- Khilāfat (1305- 1303 AH), Revised by Ensiyeh Sheykh Rezaee & Shahla Azari, Vol. 1, Tehran, National Library of Iran, 1377/ 1998.
Khurāsān Dar Asnād Amīn al- Ḍarb (Sāl- hā- yi 1351- 1282 AH), Under Guidanse of Iraj Afshar, Revised by Narges Pedram & Mozhdeh Mahdavi, Tehran, Thurayyā, 1390/ 2011.
Mūnis al- Dawla, Khāṭirāt- i Mūnis al- Dawla Nadīma- yi Ḥaram Sarā- yi Nāṣir al - Dīn Shāh, Revised by Sirus Sedvendiyan, Tehran, Zarrīn, 1380/ 2001.
Mustawfī, ʿAbdallāh, Sharḥ-i Zindigānī- yi Man, Taʾrīkh- i Idjtimāʾī wa Idārī- yi Dawra - yi Ḳādjāriyya, Vol.1, Tehran, Zawwār, 1377/ 1998.
Nadjmī, Nāṣir, Ṭihrān- i(Tehran) ʿAṣr- i Nāṣirī, Tehran, ʿAttār, 1364/ 1985.
Shahri, Jafar, Taʾrīkh-i Idjtimāʾī- yi Tehran dar Ḳarn- i Sīzdah- hum: Zindigī, Kasb wa Kār, Tehran, Rasā, 1368/ 1989.
Shishegar, Arman, "Bārfatan", Dānish-nāma-yi Djahān-i Islām, Mostafa Mir-Salim (as supervisor), Tehran, The Center For The Great Islamic Encyclopedia, 1375/ 1996.
Wills ,Charles James, Taʾrīkh- i Idjtimāʾī Iran Dar ʿAhd- i Ḳadjāriyya (Persia as it is : being sketches of modern Persian life and character), Revised by Jamshid Dodange & Mehrdad Niknam, Tehran, Zarrīn, 1363/ 1984.